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Stump of 640-year pine, Fisher's Tank, Flagstaff 58 Plate 7. Sequoia topography, ridges; area of D-l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 18, 19, 28, 29 and 30 104 B. One must see the burning sun, the sparse shrubs, the clear skies, the striking colors of earth, rock, and sky, without the green of vegetation, followed by the strong primitive atmospheric colors when the sun is just below the horizon; he must see the round green cedars and the ever watchful isolated pines of higher elevations; he must see green valley bottoms and herds escaping from sight through deep range grass at one time, and later on he must travel through cactus wastes and dead cattle lying beside dried-up water-holes.
This geologic material, with much more that will come to light, will not be included in the present volume, but will be reserved for future discussion. It is commonly free from burns and defects and its rings are very readable.
One can see that in all this we are measuring the lapse of time by means of a slow- geared clock within the trees. Pearson, of Flagstaff, through whose efforts the 640-year yellow pine was found and who has secured many borings for me; to Mr. The immense area over which the yellow pine grows adds to its value in this study, as its use avoids the com- plexities arising from the use of different species.
A beginning is made in this volume along these lines. In the present approach to the subject, the recent development of technique is given first, and this chapter deals with the selection of trees for climatic study.
A set of yellow pine ring records has been obtained from the Western States, and especially the Southwest, by which a large area can be reviewed and a first estimate made of effects such as those just mentioned. SPECIES Pines — The western yellow pine is perhaps the best tree for climatic studies, on account of its precision and length of record and its wide distribution.
The methods and instru- ments developed in this research give us an improved approach to various types of geologic material besides fossil woods. It can be injured by too much moisture in the soil, and draining then improves it.
Chief among these are the clay layers of de Geer and Antevs, dealing with the retreat of the ice-sheet, the andesite laminations of Udden in Texas, and the stalagmite deposits of Allison. Its age is very favorable, reaching over 500 years. Innere Bewegungen in den zwischenschichten des Meeres und der atmosphare.
Tree records: geographical dis- tribution 63 Western circuit, 1925 63 Western contours and rainfall ... 81 Santa Fe group 82 Basin Mountain Upper group ... 83 Aztec East group 83 The Coast zone 83 Boise, Idaho, group 83 Baker, Oregon, group 85 Dalles group 85 Oregon Coast group 85 Klamath Falls group 86 Plumas County group 86 Calaveras group of pines 87 Big Creek group 87 Springville group of pines 88 Mount Wilson group 88 VI CONTENTS PAGE VII. The Coast zone — continued San Bernardino group 89 Charleston Mountain group .... To some degree this return is realized in the present volume, which gives for the astronomers some evidence of a real history of solar 3 4 CLIMATIC CYCLES AND TREE-GROWTH changes for many centuries, for the meteorologists certain drought conditions and climatic changes over a similar length of time, and for the botanists an opportunity for learning how vegetation reacts to certain phases of its environment. Ultra-violet solar radiation and atmospheric ozone.
64 The three zones 64 The Pueblo area 65 Southwestern contours 66 Western pine groups: statistics and treatment 67 Arizona region 68 First Flagstaff group 68 Flagstaff 500-year group 69 Fort Valley group 69 High-level group 71 Flagstaff shadow group 71 Flagstaff northeast group 72 Grand Canyon group 72 Dixie Forest (Utah) group 73 Upper Rim group 73 Lower Rim group 74 Cibecue group 74 Pinal Mountain group 75 Catalina Mountain group 75 Santa Rita group 76 The Rocky Mountain zone 77 Yellowstone group 77 Laramie, Wyoming, group 77 Clements's Pike's Peak group . 89 Pine Valley group 90 Miscellaneous groups 90 Sequoias 90 Coast redwoods 91 Arizona groups 91 Other western groups 91 North American groups 92 Foreign groups 93 VIII. 125 Solar cycles, historical changes, cli- matic patterns 127 Cyclograms 130 Cycles and climate; cautions; possible future Flagstaff variations 133 Summary 136 Appendix 139 Tables or group averages, standard- ized 139 Bibliography 159 ILLUSTRATIONS PLATES PAGE Plate 1. Fire injury on D-12 (stump) showing repair and gross rings and in- closed bark 14 B. Weathering in 60 years, CV-4; bark gone, sap wood mostly gone; Cala- veras Grove 20 B. Complacent sequoia rings, D-8, grown in wet basin 22 C. In addition, various problems of dating, such as the chronology of the prehistoric ruins of the South- west, have received a new approach, but solar and climatic cycles with an ultimate view to seasonal prediction have continued the central theme.
Instruments and technique 34 Collecting tools : saws, borers, paraffin treatment 34 Measuring instruments 37 Early forms 37 Plotting micrometer; auto-plot . Tree records: length — continued Old pine records 57 Search for old trees; 500- and 640-year pines, burnt centers . It is true that the relation of the abundance of animal life, even pests, to climatic con- ditions is receiving more and more consideration, but the supreme r61e of rain in a dry climate needs to be a matter of constant experience in order to bring appreciation of the relation of tree-growth to moisture in the Southwest.
57 Prehistoric material 59 California and Arizona cross- dating 61 Charleston Mountain trip 61 VII. 79 Pike's Peak Basin group 79 Upper North Transect group ... 80 South Transect group 80 Brook group of Douglas fir ... 80 Brook group of Engelmann Spruce 81 Cloudcroft, New Mexico, group. AFFILIATIONS At the outset this work was recognized as on the borderland between astronomy, meteorology, and botany, and as needing help and information from each with some expectation of ultimate return.
Ring-size, sensitivity, and rainfall correlations, Prescott 105 13. Details of cyclogram patterns in Plate 9 132 CLIMATIC CYCLES AND TREE-GROWTH VOLUME II A STUDY OF THE ANNUAL RINGS OF TREES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE AND SOLAR ACTIVITY By A. Douglass Director of Steward Observatory, University of Arizona With nine plates and nineteen text figures CLIMATIC CYCLES AND TREE-GROWTH VOLUME II I.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating